Water Quality Measurement | Chemical Parameter
Lake Pend Oreille | Pend Oreille River
Phosphorus is another essential plant nutrient that can also cause increased plant and algae growth, low dissolved oxygen (DO) levels, and increased temperature when its concentration in water becomes too high. Phosphorus sources include natural rock and mineral decomposition, stormwater runoff and snowmelt, soil erosion, detergents and cleaning fluids, industrial discharge, failing septic systems, fertilizers, animal waste, and agricultural runoff.
Phosphorus (P) is a nutrient that supports aquatic life by encouraging growth of aquatic plants, which in turn, increases the productivity of a water body. However, excess nutrients can cause excessive growth of aquatic plants, or cultural eutrophication. This excessive plant growth can reduce water quality when the plants eventually die. Bacteria are responsible for decomposing dead plants, during which they consume oxygen. This process reduces the dissolved oxygen in the water, possibly to the point where it is no longer capable of supporting aquatic life. Other deleterious effects of cultural eutrophication include reduced clarity, nuisance algal growth (some species which may produce toxins harmful to humans and wildlife), decreased species diversity, decreased food supply, and habitat destruction.
The “pure,” elemental form of P is rarely found in nature. Phosphorus most often exists within a phosphate molecule (PO4). Both inorganic and organic forms of phosphate can be found in aquatic systems. It is the inorganic form, orthophosphate (PO4 3- ) that is available to plants and animals. However, orthophosphate levels in water bodies fluctuate daily, because plants consume it quickly. Therefore, total phosphorus (TP) measurements are most commonly used. TP testing involves converting all forms of phosphorus that exist in a sample to the simpler inorganic form of orthophosphate. By doing this, the phosphorus contained in both organic and inorganic forms can be quantified (US EPA 2010).
Some sources of excess phosphorus
- Natural decomposition of rocks and minerals
- Stormwater runoff and snow melt
- Erosion and sedimentation
- Atmospheric deposition
- Direct input by animals/wildlife
- Agricultural runoff
- Detergents and cleaning fluids
- Failing septic systems
- Lake mixing (internal loading of phosphorus from sediment/water interface)
- Wastewater treatment plants and permitted industrial discharge
Support this Program!
Laboratory analysis of water samples are very expensive totalling about $1,000 per station per field season. Your donation helps cover the costs of collecting & analyzing water samples.
Become a Citizen Scientist!
Become a trained citizen scientist. Collecting water samples is a great way to enjoy time on the water & get involved in active stewardship of our local waterways!